Repozitorij Medicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu

Procjena izloženosti otrovnim metalima i njihovih učinaka na funkcije posteljice u zdravih rodilja [Assessment of exposure to toxic metals and their effects on placental functions in healthy parturients]

Stasenko, Sandra (2011) Procjena izloženosti otrovnim metalima i njihovih učinaka na funkcije posteljice u zdravih rodilja [Assessment of exposure to toxic metals and their effects on placental functions in healthy parturients]. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu.

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    Croatian abstract

    Svrha istraživanja bila je procijeniti razine izloženosti kadmiju, olovu i živi te moguće opasnosti za žene fertilne dobi i buduće potomke zbog perinatalne izloženosti. Istraživanje je provedeno na ukupno 406 zdravih žena s ročnim porođajem rodničkim putem u Kliničkoj bolnici u Zagrebu. Koncentracije otrovnih metala i esencijalnih mikronutrijenata željeza, cinka, bakra i selenija određivane su u uzorcima posteljičinog tkiva te uzorcima venske krvi majke i krvi pupkovine standardnim analitičkim metodama (AAS i ICP-MS) u odnosu na naviku pušenja cigareta i prehranu. U posteljicama pušačica u usporedbi s nepušačicama, kadmij je bio dvostruko veći, olovo je bilo povećano, porođajne težine, duljine i posteljičini omjeri smanjeni i oba metala negativno su korelirala s porođajnim težinama. Cink je bio povećan, a željezo i bakar nisu bili promijenjeni. U krvi majki pušačica u odnosu na nepušačice, kadmij je bio dvostruko veći i korelirao je s pušenjem u trudnoći. Kadmij u krvi pupkovine je bilo oko deset puta manji, neovisno o izloženosti duhanskom dimu. Nije bilo razlika u koncentracijama olova u krvi majki i pupkovine, kao ni željeza, cinka, bakra i selenija u serumu majke i pupkovine. Koncentracije žive u krvi majke i pupkovine te koncentracije selenija u serumu majke i pupkovine linearno su se povećavale s unosom ribe u prehrani. Razine progesterona i estradiola izmjerene u posteljičinom tkivu ex vivo (uporabom enzimsko-imunometrijske metode) bile su u međusobnoj korelaciji, ali nije bilo promjena u odnosu na izloženost duhanskom dimu. Potvrdili smo da ljudska posteljica predstavlja koristan i jedinstven uzorak tkiva u humanom biološkom monitoringu vanjskog majčinog i unutarnjeg okoliša za razvoj fetusa. Nađene razine izloženosti otrovnim metalima u žena na području grada Zagreba i Zagrebačke županije slične su onima u velikim gradovima kontinentalnih dijelova Europe i ne predstavljaju ozbiljnu opasnost za nerođene dijete. Izloženost duhanskom dimu, zbog nakupljanja kadmija, može imati nepovoljne učinke na funkcije posteljice u prijenosu esencijalnih mikronutrijenata – kako smo pokazali za cink – s posljedičnim smanjenim vrijednostima porođajne težine i porođajne duljine.

    English abstract

    The investigation aimed at assessing levels of exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury, and the related imminent risks for women of reproductive age and upcoming children due to perinatal exposure. Study was conducted on in total 406 healthy women who gave birth at term by vaginal delivery in a clinical hospital in Zagreb. We measured the concentrations of toxic metals and essential micronutrients iron, zinc, copper, and selenium in placental tissue, maternal venous blood, and umbilical cord blood using standard analytical techniques (AAS and ICP-MS) in relation to cigarette smoking and dietary habit. In placentas of smokers vs. non-smokers, cadmium doubled; lead increased, birth weight, length and placental ratio decreased, and both metals negatively correlated with birth weights. Zinc increased, and iron and copper did not change. In maternal blood of smokers, cadmium was twice as high as in non-smokers and correlated with smoking in pregnancy. Cadmium in cord blood was about ten times lower regardless of exposure to tobacco smoke. There were no differences between smoking and non-smoking in lead concentrations in maternal and cord blood, as well as in iron, zinc, copper and selenium in maternal and cord serum. Mercury in maternal and cord blood and selenium in maternal and cord serum increased linearly with dietary intake of fish. Levels of progesterone and estradiol were assayed in placental tissue ex vivo (using enzyme-immunometric method), correlated, and no differences were found in relation to tobacco smoke exposure. We confirmed that human placenta presents a useful and unique tissue sample in human biological monitoring of external maternal and internal environment for foetal development. Exposure levels to toxic metals in women of Zagreb metropolitan area and Zagreb County are similar to those in other big cities in continental parts of Europe, and do not pose a serious threat for unborn child. Tobacco smoke exposure, due to cadmium accumulation, may have adverse effects on placental function in essential micronutrient transport – as we showed for zinc – with consequent decreases in birth weight and birth length.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Mentor: Piasek, Martina
    Divisions: Izvan medicinskog fakulteta
    Depositing User: Marijan Šember
    University: Sveučilište u Zagrebu
    Institution: Medicinski fakultet
    Number of Pages: 76
    Status: Unpublished
    Creators:
    CreatorsEmail
    Stasenko, Sandra
    Date: 07 June 2011
    Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2011
    Last Modified: 23 Sep 2011 18:11
    Subjects: /
    Related URLs:
      URI: http://medlib.mef.hr/id/eprint/995

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