DNA methylation as a regulatory mechanism for gene expression in mammals

Šerman, Alan and Vlahović, Maja and Šerman, Ljiljana and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana (2006) DNA methylation as a regulatory mechanism for gene expression in mammals. Collegium antropologicum, 30 (3). pp. 665-671. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print)

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Abstract

Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. In the last decade, it has been shown that epigenetic mechanisms provide an "extra" layer of transcriptional control that regulates genes expression. Three distinct mechanisms appear intricately related in initiating and sustaining epigenetic modifications: RNA-associated silencing, DNA methylation and histone modification. These mechanisms are critical components in the normal development and cell growth. DNA methylation is involved in transcriptional silencing of genes, regulation of expression of imprinted genes, a number of tumour suppressor genes in cancer and silencing of genes located on the inactive X chromosome. In this review, we are focused on the basic principles of DNA methylation as the main epigenetic mechanism for normal embryonic development and epigenetic alterations that contribute to carcinogenesis.

Abstract in Croatian

Nasljedne promjene u ekspresiji gena koje se nasljeđuju neovisno o promjenama slijeda baza u molekuli DNA definiraju pojam epigenetike. Zadnja dekada, pokazala je da epigenetski mehanizmi omogućavaju dodatnu regulaciju ekspresije gena na razini transkripcije. Tri sistema, uključujući metilaciju DNA, modifikaciju histona i RNA-posredovano djelovanje, danas se povezuju s regulacijom ekspresije gena. Oni su kritični regulatori kako embrionalnog razvoja tako i samog rasta stanica. Proces metilacije molekule DNA predstavlja epigenetski mehanizam uključen u inaktivaciju transkripcije gena, genomski imprinting, osigurava neaktivnost većine gena na inaktivnom X kromosomu u stanicama ženskog organizma kao i tumor supresor gena u raku. Ovim pregledom iznjeli smo osnovne principe metilacije DNA molekule kao glavnog epigenetskog mehanizma regulacije genske ekspresije, s težištem na njezinoj ulozi u normalnom embrionalnom razvoju te poremećajima koji dovode do razvoja raka.

Item Type: Article
MeSH: DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic - genetics - physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation - genetics - physiology ; Gene Silencing - physiology ; Genomic Imprinting - physiology ; Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Mammals
Departments: Katedra za medicinsku biologiju
Depositing User: Boris Čičovački
Status: Published
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Šerman, AlanUNSPECIFIED
Vlahović, MajaUNSPECIFIED
Šerman, LjiljanaUNSPECIFIED
Bulić-Jakuš, FlorianaUNSPECIFIED
Date: September 2006
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2008
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2011 16:10
Subjects: /
Related URLs:
    URI: http://medlib.mef.hr/id/eprint/466

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