Repozitorij Medicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu

Evaluation of bacteremia in a pediatric intensive care unit: epidemiology, microbiology, sources sites and risk factors

Maldini, Branka and Antolić, Stanko and Šakić-Zdravčević, Katarina and Karaman-Ilić, Maja and Janković, Saša (2007) Evaluation of bacteremia in a pediatric intensive care unit: epidemiology, microbiology, sources sites and risk factors. Collegium antropologicum, 31 (4). pp. 1083-1088. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print)

[img]
Preview
PDF
Download (71Kb) | Preview

    Croatian abstract

    Bakteremija je česti uzrok morbiditeta i mortaliteta u djece koja se zbrinjavaju u pedijatriskoj jedinici intenzivnog liječenja (PICU). U radu smo ispitivali mikroorganizme koji dovode do bakteremije u našem PICU tijekom jedne godine, kako bi ustanovili smrtnost koja je povezana sa takovim infekcijama i otkrili čimbenike koji najčešće dovode do morbiditeta i mortaliteta. Od 1. siječnja do 31. prosinca 2006. god., 479 bolesnika je zaprimljeno u PICU, izvađeno je 379 uzoraka hemokulture. Uzorci su smješteni u BACTEC 9050 System a izolati identificirani rutinskim mikrobiološkim metodama. Uzorci uzeti za aerobnu i anaerobnu kulturu smatrani su u statističkoj obradi kao jedan uzorak. Podaci su sakupljani iz medicinske dokumentacije svakog bolesnika na standardnim dokumentima naše bolnice a uključivali su demografsku informaciju, predisponirajuća stanja, izvore infekcija, važne laboratorijske i kliničke parametre u vrijeme infekcije kao i mikrobiološke podatke. Bazirano na tim podacima pozitivne hemokulture su klasificirane kao kontaminirane ili kao bakteremija. Tijekom jedne godine, dokumentirano je 117 epizoda bakteremije u 72 bolesnika. Najčešći izolati su bili koagulaze-negativni stafilokoki 32,2% (39), zatim slijedi Candida spp. 30,5% (36). Srednja vrijednost bijele krvne slike (WBC) na dan bakteremije iznosila je 15,2 _ 109/L (niz, 0,1–48,0 _ 109/L). Srednja vrijednost temperature na dan infekcije iznosila je 38,2_1,1 °C (niz, 34–41 °C). Neka novorođenčad 23% (n=5) su imala signifikantno nižu temperaturu (p<0,02) i niže WBC (p<0.05) nego starija djeca. Hemodinamska nestabilnost je zamijećena u 11% bakterijskih epizoda. Bakteremija je u 22.6% slučajeva izazvana intravaskularnim kateterima, 20,4% pneumonijom, genitourinarnim traktom 14,2%, kirurškim ranama u 11,7% i gastrointestinalnim traktom u 9,85% slučajeva. Sedam bolesnika umrlo je zbog sepse. Rana dijagnoza, promptno dobivanje rezultata hemokulture, koje prati odgovarajući antibiotski tretman će značajno smanjiti mortalitet u takovih bolesnika. Što kraće vrijeme boravka u bolnici, restriktivna uporaba invazivnih monitoringa i tehnika bitno će smanjiti rizik bakteremije za vrijeme boravka u PICU.

    English abstract

    Bacteremia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We have investigated the causative agents of bacteremia in our PICU over a one-year period, to determine mortality associated with such infection and identify the dependent predictors for morbidity and mortality. From 1 January till 31 December 2006, 479 patients were admitted in the PICU and 379 blood culture samples were taken. Samples were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 System, and isolates identified by routine microbiological methods. A pair of samples taken for aerobic and anaerobic culture were statistically regarded as one sample. Data collected from the medical records of each patient were recorded onto standardized collections sheets and included demographic information, predisposing conditions, source(s) of infection, important clinical and laboratory parameters at the time of infection, and microbiological data. Based on these data, positive blood cultures were classified as either contaminants or true bacteremias. During a year period, 117 episodes of bacteremia were documented in 72 patients. The most frequent isolates were the coagulase-negative staphylococci 32.2% (39), followed by Candida spp. 30.5% (36). The mean white blood cell count (WBC) on the day of bacteremia was 15.2 x 10(9)/L (range 0.1-48.0 x 10(9)/L), and 3.3% of episodes occurred in neutropenic (WBC count < 1 x 10(9)/L) children. The mean temperature on the day of infection was 38.2 +/- 1.1 degrees C (range, 34-41 degrees C). Some newborns 23% (n = 5) had a significantly lower mean temperature (p < 0.02) and lower mean WBC count (p < 0.05) than older children. Hemodynamic instability was noted in 11% of bacteremic episodes. Among all bacteremias, intravascular catheters were implicated in 22.6%, pneumonia in 20.4%, genitourinary tract in 14.2%, surgical wounds in 11.7% and, gastrointestinal tract in 9.8%. Seven patients died because of sepsis. Early diagnosis, prompt blood culture reports, followed by appropriate antibiotic treatment is essential in reducing mortality in such patients. Short hospital stay and restricted use of invasive devices should be the aims to reduce the risk of bacteremia during the stay in the PICU.

    Item Type: Article
    MeSH: Bacteremia - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology ; Cross Infection - epidemiology ; Intensive Care Units, Pediatric ; Adolescent ; Candida - isolation & purification ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa - isolation & purification ; Risk Factors ; Staphylococcus - isolation & purification
    Divisions: Katedra za anesteziologiju i reanimatologiju
    Depositing User: Boris Čičovački
    Status: Published
    Creators:
    CreatorsEmail
    Maldini, Branka
    Antolić, Stanko
    Šakić-Zdravčević, Katarina
    Karaman-Ilić, Maja
    Janković, Saša
    Date: December 2007
    Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2008
    Last Modified: 23 Sep 2011 18:10
    Subjects: /
    Related URLs:
      URI: http://medlib.mef.hr/id/eprint/414

      Actions (login required)

      View Item

      Document Downloads

      More statistics for this item...