Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012.

Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N. and Chatzikosta, Isaia and Pastiadis, Konstantinos and Zanis, Prodromos and Kawohl, Wolfram and Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M. and Navickas, Alvydas and Höschl, Cyril and Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica and Sorel, Eliot and Rancans, Elmars and Palova, Eva and Juckel, Georg and Isacsson, Goran and Jagodic, Helena Korosec and Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana and Rybakowski, Janusz and Azorin, Jean Michel and Cookson, John and Waddington, John and Pregelj, Peter and Demyttenaere, Koen and Hranov, Luchezar G. and Stevovic, Lidija Injac and Pezawas, Lucas and Adida, Marc and Figuera, Maria Luisa and Jakovljević, Miro and Vichi, Monica and Perugi, Giulio and Andreassen, Ole A. and Vukovic, Olivera and Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi and Varnik, Peeter and Dome, Peter and Winkler, Petr and Salokangas, Raimo K. R. and From, Tiina and Danileviciute, Vita and Gonda, Xenia and Rihmer, Zoltan and Forsman, Jonas and Grady, Anne and Hyphantis, Thomas and Dieset, Ingrid and Soendergaard, Susan and Pompili, Maurizio and Bech, Per (2016) Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012. Annals of General Psychiatry, 15 (1). p. 19. ISSN 1744-859X

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. ----- METHODS: Data from 29 European countries covering the years 2000-2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression. ----- RESULTS: The derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high inflation and low GDP per capita, while female suicides correlated negatively with inflation. Both male and female suicides correlated with low temperature. ----- DISCUSSION: The current study reports that the climatic effect (cold climate) is stronger than the economic one, but both are present. It seems that in Europe suicidality follows the climate/temperature cline which interestingly is not from south to north but from south to north-east. This raises concerns that climate change could lead to an increase in suicide rates. The current study is essentially the first successful attempt to explain the differences across countries in Europe; however, it is an observational analysis based on aggregate data and thus there is a lack of control for confounders.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2016 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Departments: Katedra za psihijatriju i psihološku medicinu
Depositing User: Martina Žužak
Status: Published
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.UNSPECIFIED
Chatzikosta, IsaiaUNSPECIFIED
Pastiadis, KonstantinosUNSPECIFIED
Zanis, ProdromosUNSPECIFIED
Kawohl, WolframUNSPECIFIED
Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.UNSPECIFIED
Navickas, AlvydasUNSPECIFIED
Höschl, CyrilUNSPECIFIED
Lecic-Tosevski, DusicaUNSPECIFIED
Sorel, EliotUNSPECIFIED
Rancans, ElmarsUNSPECIFIED
Palova, EvaUNSPECIFIED
Juckel, GeorgUNSPECIFIED
Isacsson, GoranUNSPECIFIED
Jagodic, Helena KorosecUNSPECIFIED
Botezat-Antonescu, IleanaUNSPECIFIED
Rybakowski, JanuszUNSPECIFIED
Azorin, Jean MichelUNSPECIFIED
Cookson, JohnUNSPECIFIED
Waddington, JohnUNSPECIFIED
Pregelj, PeterUNSPECIFIED
Demyttenaere, KoenUNSPECIFIED
Hranov, Luchezar G.UNSPECIFIED
Stevovic, Lidija InjacUNSPECIFIED
Pezawas, LucasUNSPECIFIED
Adida, MarcUNSPECIFIED
Figuera, Maria LuisaUNSPECIFIED
Jakovljević, MiroUNSPECIFIED
Vichi, MonicaUNSPECIFIED
Perugi, GiulioUNSPECIFIED
Andreassen, Ole A.UNSPECIFIED
Vukovic, OliveraUNSPECIFIED
Mavrogiorgou, ParaskeviUNSPECIFIED
Varnik, PeeterUNSPECIFIED
Dome, PeterUNSPECIFIED
Winkler, PetrUNSPECIFIED
Salokangas, Raimo K. R.UNSPECIFIED
From, TiinaUNSPECIFIED
Danileviciute, VitaUNSPECIFIED
Gonda, XeniaUNSPECIFIED
Rihmer, ZoltanUNSPECIFIED
Forsman, JonasUNSPECIFIED
Grady, AnneUNSPECIFIED
Hyphantis, ThomasUNSPECIFIED
Dieset, IngridUNSPECIFIED
Soendergaard, SusanUNSPECIFIED
Pompili, MaurizioUNSPECIFIED
Bech, PerUNSPECIFIED
Date: 9 August 2016
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2017 10:07
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2017 10:07
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Related URLs:
URI: http://medlib.mef.hr/id/eprint/2741

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