Repozitorij Medicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu

Osobitosti sjećanja oca i majke na traumatski događaj nestanka i posmrtne identifikacije sina deset godina poslije nestanka : kvalitativna analiza

Jurčević, Slavica (2011) Osobitosti sjećanja oca i majke na traumatski događaj nestanka i posmrtne identifikacije sina deset godina poslije nestanka : kvalitativna analiza. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u u Zagrebu.

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    Croatian abstract

    Cilj Procijeniti osobitosti sjecanja oca i majke na traumatski dogadaj nestanka i posmrtne identifikacije sina deset godina poslije njegova nestanka. Ustroj studije Primijenjen je kvalitativni istraživacki pristup analize sadržaja sjecanja. Ispitanici: Ispitivani uzorak cini ukupno 13 majki i 7 oceva nestalih osoba i šest majki i tri oca koji su posmrtno identificirali svoje sinove. Ukupno 29 osoba. Prosjecna dob majki bila je 65 godina (53-77), a oceva 67 godina (60-75). Mjesto studije Istraživanje je provedeno u cetiri sela sjeveroistocno i jugozapadno od Osijeka: Laslovu, Ernestinovu, Bilju i Dardi. Iz njih je pocetkom 1991. godine nasilno odvedena 21 osoba. Prosjecna dob nestalih osoba bila je 31 godina (raspon godina 18-41). Deset godina poslije, šest ih je posmrtno identificirano (6/21), a petnaest ih se još vodi nestalima (15/21). Postupci Istraživac bilježi audio zapis intervjua. Sadržaj dopunjava opisom ponašanja traumatizirane osobe i njezinim samoopažanjima. Od ispitanika se tražilo da prizove u sjecanje najtraumaticniju scenu, a potom je analizira prema protokolu traumatske memorije. Teorijsko polazište u formulaciji pitanja bila je Bowlbyeva teorija žalovanja. Intervju se obavljao dok se nije iscrpila izucavana tema, odnosno dok se razmišljanja u razgovorima nisu pocela ponavljati. U postupku analize sadržaja svjedocanstva slicni i istovjetni opisi sažimani su u teme. Teme predstavljaju jedinice sadržaja svjedocanstva. Tako smo kodirali 173 teme. Na Obrascu za procjenu uz svaku temu navedena je ljestvica za procjenu. Od ukupnog broja jedinica sadržaja (173) za pilotno testiranje pouzdanosti odabrane su 62 jedinice sadržaja (teme), uz raspon pouzdanosti od 0,05 i pogrješku uzorkovanja 0,03. Procjena pouzdanosti Krippendorf alpha za dvojicu procjenjivaca nije dala zadovoljavajuce rezultate pa su oni iskljuceni iz istraživanja. Preostala tri procjenjivaca nastavila su s procjenom ukupnog sadržaja (173 kodirane teme). Postupak procišcavanja kodiranog materijala obuhvacao jer tri faze. I. faza: Odabrali smo željenu razinu pouzdanosti procjena Krippendorf alpha 0,30. Tako smo izdvojili 80 tema (80/173). II. faza: Podigli smo razinu pouzdanosti procjena Krippendorf alpha 0,40 cime smo izdvojili 52 teme (52/173). III. Faza: Podigli smo razinu pouzdanosti procjena Krippendorf alpha 0,50 i izdvojili 30 tema (30/173). Te su teme prisutne u svjedocanstvima 11 majki i 6 oceva (raspon pouzdanosti Krippendorf alpha 0,60 – 0,82). Mjere glavnog ishoda Iz sadržaja sjecanja oca i majke na traumatski dogadaj nestanka sina moguce je izdvojiti deset senzorno-slikovnih emocionalnih: 1. Strah da bi nešto tude i strano, kao što je DNA-identifikacija, moglo razriješiti sudbinu nestalog sina'; 2. 'Nestala osoba – 126 žrtveni jarac“; 3. 'Odabir spomen-svijece na nestaloga.; 4. ''Možda se ipak dogodi cudo - vjerovanje u nadnaravno.; 5. 'Umor od traženja – sahraniti mrtve da bi živi mogli živjeti.''; 6. Sadržaj sna odreduje svakodnevna ponašanja – san kao aktivan cimbenik realnosti.'; 7. 'Sacuvane sinovljeve stvari (odjeca i sl.) dokaz su sinovljevoga postojanja.'; 8. 'Ispovijed - sakrament pokore i pomirenja.“; 9. 'Nada – nesvjesni izraz temeljnog povjerenja u svoju okolinu.; 10. Ponavljajuci bljeskovi sjecanja ('flash back’ epizode): obmane osjetila i tjelesni rastroj, dekompenzacija. Rezultati Posttraumatska disocijativna reakcija najizraženija je prilikom prisjecanja na anticipirani ili stvarni dogadaj posmrtne identifikacije sina na temelju analize DNA, a bez vizualne prepoznatljivosti (fragmentirani dijelovi tijela: ostaci kostiju, zubalo i sl.). Nacin na koji ocevi opisuju svoje doživljaje vezane uz nestalog sina statisticki se znacajno razlikuje od majcina opisa. Majcin narativni iskaz oslikava njezino nastojanje da zaokruži pricu o životu i žrtvi svojega sina na osnovi vrlo malo podataka s kojima ona raspolaže. Svojstveno svim iskazima majki nestalih i posmrtno identificiranih osoba je narativno odsustvo spomena smrti. Otac traumatski dogadaj opisuje po modelu izmjenicnih uloga aktera i promatraca, u stereotipnoj naraciji iznosi opce stavove prema ratu“, žrtvi“ i „drugim ljudima“. Dominiraju dva stava “nestali sin je mrtav“ i “želja da nade nestalog sina i sahrani“. Zakljucci Pripovijest o nestalom sinu moguce je sagledati epizodno kao deset razlicitih prica o sinu. Svaka se emocionalno senzorna epizoda cini kao prica za sebe. Emocionalno iskustvo nestanka sina i posmrtne identifikacije njegovih fragmentiranih posmrtnih ostataka na temelju analize DNA cini se zarobljenim unutar simbolicnog konteksta (verbalnog sustava) i referencijalno vezanim u specificne tvorbe kao što su “predodžbe“ (engl., image) i emocionalne epizode. To omogucava ožalošcenom ocu i majki da svoje emocionalne doživljaje mogu ispricati u epizodicnom obliku. Tako ‘bljeskovi sjecanja’ postaju središnja zbivanja u nastanku pripovijesti o nestalom sinu. ‘Bljeskovi sjecanja’, ispricani tematski ili epizodno osiguravaju narativnu vezu s drugim uspomenama i tudim iskustvima. Ova ontološka pripovijest o nestalom i posmrtno identificiranom sinu osim društvene sadrži i interpersonalnu odrednicu za razliku od tradicionalnog pristupa naraciji putem pricanja pripovijesti kao ogranicenog nacina ili oblika predstavljanja.

    English abstract

    Aim To assess memory characteristics of parents in regards to the trauma caused by the disappearance and postmortem identification of their sons, ten years after the sons were reported missing. Study design Qualitative analysis of the content of memory. Sample size Testimonies were taken from 13 mothers and 7 fathers, out of which 6 mothers and 3 fathers have identified their sons postmortem. Mothers' median age was 65 (53-77), and fathers' 67 (60-75). Place of study The interviews were held in 4 villages situated NE and SW from Osijek: Laslovo, Ernestinovo, Bilje i Darda; out of which, in the beginning of 1991, 21 persons have been reported missing. Sons' median age, at the time of their disappearance was 31 (18-41). In the ten years after the disappearance, 6 out of 21 were identified postmortem, while the remaining 15 are still listed as missing. Methods Interviews were recorded and translated verbatim adding the interviewers comments and descriptions of the observed behavior. Interviewees were asked to recall their most traumatic event, which was then analyzed according to the protocol for the traumatic memory. The interviews were ended when the topic was thoroughly exhausted, or when the interviewees' thoughts started to repeat. Theoretical starting point was Bowlby's theory of mourning. Analyzing the contents of the memories, descriptions that were similar or the same were grouped into topics. These topics represent units of memory's content, and initially 173 different ones were coded. Evaluation Forms for the testimonies consisted of those 173 topics, followed by an evaluation scale. The pilot testing consisted of 62 topics, with a confidence interval of 0,05 and sampling error of 0,03. For two evaluators Krippendorff's alpha coefficient was insufficient and they were excluded from the study, while the remaining 3 evaluators continued their analysis on all 173 topics. The process of stratification of the coded topics consisted of 3 phases: For Phase 1 Krippendorff's alpha coefficient was set to 0,30 which yielded 80 out of 173 topics. In Phase 2 Krippendorff's alpha coefficient was set to 0,40 yielding 53 topics. Finally in Phase 3 Krippendorff's alpha coefficient was set to 0,50 yielding 30 topics. These 30 topics were present in the testimonies of 11 mothers and 6 fathers with Krippendorff's alpha coefficient 0,60 – 0,82. Final results' measures From the parental memories of the trauma caused by the disappearance of their sons it was possible to construct 10 sensorial and emotional episodes: 1. Fear that something so foreign and alien, as DNA-analysis is, could determine the faith of the missing son; 2. The missing person is a – 'scapegoat'; 3. Picking of a 'memorial candle' for 128 the missing; 4. Belief in the supernatural – 'perhaps a miracle will still happen'; 5. Tiredness brought on by the search for the missing - 'burying the dead so that the living could live'; 6. The content of dreams directs daily behavior – 'dream as an active reality check'; 7. Preserved objects belonging to the missing son (clothes, etc.) are proof that the he is alive; 8. Confession – 'the sacrament of repent and acceptance'; 9. Hope – 'subconscious expression of belief in ones surroundings'; 10. Flash-back episodes – 'sensory delusions and body manifestations, decompensation'. Final results A post-traumatic dissociative reaction is highest during the recollection of an anticipated or actual postmortem identification of the missing son by DNA-analysis in cases when visual identification is not possible (fragmented body parts: pieces of bone, dental parts, etc.) The ways fathers describe events relating to the missing son are statistically very different from the way mothers do so. Mothers' narrative testimony depicts them trying to conclude the story of their son's disappearance based upon very scarce information they posses. Another trait of the mothers' narratives about their missing sons that have been identified postmortem, is the lack of mentioning the way the sons died. The fathers, on the other hand, depict the traumatic event by switching the observer and the acting roles for themselves, with a stereotypical narration in which societies attitudes towards the war, toward the victim and toward other individuals is expressed. Two attitudes dominate the fathers' testimonies: 'the missing son is dead' and 'the wish to find and bury the missing son'. Conclusions Testimonies regarding the missing sons can be viewed as consisting of 10 seperate stories, each accompanied by its emotional and sensorial image. Emotional reaction brought on by the disappearance and the postmortem identification of their sons by DNAanalysis seems to be captured within a symbolic context (verbal system) and linked to these specific images and emotional episodes. This enables the mourning parents to tell their story in an episodic form. Flashbulb memories, therefore, become the center points of a disappearance narrative, and are then easily linked to other episodes wither thematically similar or emotionally similar. This ontological narrative about the missing son who was identified postmortem, enables not only a social approach, what has so far been the traditional approach, but also an individual approach to a narration as a limited way of self presentation.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Mentor: Dodig, Goran
    Divisions: Izvan medicinskog fakulteta
    Depositing User: dr.med. Helena Markulin
    University: Sveučilište u u Zagrebu
    Institution: Medicinski fakultet
    Number of Pages: 147
    Status: Unpublished
    Creators:
    CreatorsEmail
    Jurčević, Slavica
    Date: 07 March 2011
    Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2012 15:14
    Last Modified: 15 Nov 2012 15:14
    Subjects: W Health Professions > W 601-925 Forensic Sciences > W 601-750 Reference and General Works
    Related URLs:
      URI: http://medlib.mef.hr/id/eprint/1692

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